Leading in changing world from my own perspective.

After 10 weeks entirely engaging the basis of knowledge regarding ‘Leading in a changing world’ in my MBA class with the really supportive and motivated tutor – James, my vision about leadership and the hidden association between them has been revealed. Based on my own perspective and my desire long term goals, I find this subject one of the most interesting things I have explored ever. From the 4 previous blogs, it can be believed that, it is important not just for my chosen future industry – fashion/garment industry but the others industries to understand firstly the concept of leader, ethical leadership and the possible impacts on organization (Ethical system, N/D). After that, the two theories of ethical leadership as: Deontological (Act Consequentialism) and Teleological (Consequentialism) (BBC, 2016) and the concept of 4V model are of equal importance (My 1st blog). The difference between leadership and management should not also be overlooked as mentioned in my 3rd blog.

Management Leadership
Managers do thing right Leaders do the right things
Managing is an authority relationship Leading is an influence relationship
Managing creates stability Leading creates changes

(Figure 01 – Mullins, 2016)

Furthermore, as the prevalence growth of global economy today, it paves the way for the higher requirement for the leader/manager as they should be well prepared regarding tackling for the fundamental issues as be presented in the table (Figure 02) below through the flow of my blogs:

Blog themes No.
Managing diverse team 2nd blog
The importance of understanding the organizational culture in leading and managing (diverse perspective: leader/manager) 3rd blog
How to apply the change management model and the possible theories to tackle with changes and resistance of change in the organization in the most effective way 4th blog

(Figure 02 – Blog themes summary)

This 5th blog states my clear vision as: there are not any ideal role models for leadership, especially in the changing world like this with the increase in a number of unexpected problems regarding economy, culture, human-being behavioral changes, politic, and environment. Hence, personally, I think I would like to be led by the leader who not only has the good knowledge based about the industry but also can be flexible and quickly react in the wise ways with the forthcoming unknown issues because each organization will have their own nature, and each problem should have its own solutions as the diverse components included. Furthermore, it also should be put into ethical consideration as part of human-beings manner and morality perspective.

Through my studying and exploring during the seminar and lecture classes this term, one of the leaders who inspired and motivated me the most is the young-lazy man Ricardo with his further successful on the rare organizational structure as known as not likely having any consistent structure which emphasizes the most on democracy and the own value of each different person. (Figure 03 – Semco case study, 2016)

Semco case study

(Figure 03 – Semco case study, 2016)

Summarizing - Leading in a changing world

Lastly, the great ideal as the equal opportunities for every one in each group in seminar class to take the leadership responsibility for one week for our own team and get feedback from the peers later has brought me a number of valuable experiences and significant advices from my group mates (based on 6 fundamental factors). Overall, I got the pretty good feedbacks from 4 people said that I did set clear purpose for them to understand the structured plan to get the task done and give them the best position and option based on their own value. However, from the other element, 3 people reported that I did not give them the support and praise at the right time which makes them feel less motivated and useless at some points. (Figure 04)

Primary measured elements Number of people gave the good feedback Number of people suggested for further self-development
Explain how your team leader set a clear purpose for you 4 2
Please comment on your team leaders ability to organize your team effectively 4 2
Give an example of how your team leader listened to your views and the views of others 5 1
Give an example of how your team leader praised you for doing a good job 3 3
Give an example of how you felt valued  by your team leader as an important member of the team 3 3
Explain how your team leader influenced and motivated you? 4 2

(Figure 04 – Feedback from my other 6 Dinosaur team members)

During one of the seminars about culture issues in managing the diverse team, when being asked by the teacher do you find any conflicts in your team due to the various background and cultures? We can be proud to say that even we are all from different countries and continents with even diverse background and future goals; we did not find any conflicts regarding those issues. From my point of view, even we do not have any real leader to manage us; we know each person’s own value, beliefs, cultures which can be closely related to the application of  6 Hofstede dimensions national culture (Hofstede, 2017). Hence, we do respect each other and let everyone can do their best in the most adequate ways but still under our own control as setting up our own meeting timetable and some key principles of team working  to ensure work can be done on time.  As an obvious consequence, until now, I am more than clear about leadership concept, the related issues and how to apply it. However, after getting the peers’ feedbacks, I am properly aware that there are still a number of personal skills and further based leadership & business knowledge which require me for better attemption and self-development in order to be an ethical leader in my future career. As a result, I find me highly excited making the summary skill plan (Figure 05) for my further improvement and development which is not just valuable for my leadership skill in next term but also for my forthcoming future career events.

Skills
(leadership)
Way to develop
Deadline
The measure
Resources
Possible barriers/limitation
Self-management skill
+ Self-study
+ Self-research
+ Self-practice during the academic term and in real life
July 2017
+ Improvement in self-controlling plan for finishing deadlines of the academic term
+ Improvement in self-controlling the necessary manners in different situations to tackle with problems.
+ Text book
+ Internet
+ Lecturer
+ Professor
+ Friend
+ Possible limitations come from my  own personalities
+ Lack of determination
+ Lack of required knowledge
Problem solving skill
+ Self-study
+ Self-research
+ Self-practice during the academic term and in real life
Long term exploring and developing
+ Improvement in the way of thinking in different situations
+ Improvement in working under high pressure
+ Improvement in the way tackling with issues, how revealing the problem and plan to break it down.
+ Text book
+ Internet
+ Lecturer
+ Professor
+ Friend
+ Barriers of my own nature in front of some specified cases
+ Lack of various types of knowledge
+ Habit of slow reactions.
Professionalism in academic/business communication
+ Self-study
+ Self-research
+ Self-practice during the academic term and in real life and in working place
Dec 2017
+ Improvement in the way communicate with the lecture and the colleagues during the seminar/presentation/internship.
+ Improvement in the way discussing about business based issues (contracts, deals, negotiations, customer service)
+ Text book
+ Internet
+ Lecturer
+ Professor
+ Friend
+ Colleagues
+ Lack of language skills
+ Lack of the professor in body-language utilizing
+ Lack of real experience
Professionalism in academic/business writing paper.
+ Self-study
+ Self-research
+ Self-practice during the academic term and in working place
Dec 2017
+ Improvement in the way present and dedicate ideas by words with the professional and academic writing style.
+ Improvement and further development in the way tackling with business documents and how to create them (contracts, mission announcements
+ Text book
+ Internet
+ Lecturer
+ Professor
+ Friend
+ Colleagues
+ Lack of language skills
+ Lack of business based knowledge
+ Lack of understanding about the official  academic/ business writing style

(Figure 05 – My own progression summary skills plan)

References:

  BBC (2016) ‘Consequentialism.’  [online] Available from: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/consequentialism_1.shtml> [Accessed 20th March 2017]

 Belbin (2014) ‘How to build lean Belbin team?’ [pdf] Available from: <http://www.belbin.com/media/1162/belbin-howtobuildleanbelbinteams-july2014.pdf&gt; [Accessed 20th March 2017]

Ethical system (N/D) Leadership [online] Available from: <http://www.ethicalsystems.org/content/leadership> [Accessed 20th March 2017].

 Mullins, J., L. (2016) ‘Organizational culture and change.’ In Management & Organizational behavior. London: Pearson, 537-566.

Mullins, J., L. (2016) ‘Leadership in organizations.’ In Management & Organisational behaviour. London: Pearson, 312-313.

Geert Hofstede (2017) ‘National culture.’ [online] Available from: < https://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html&gt; [Accessed 20th March 2017]

 Pillai, D., G. (2017) Leadership and Ethics [lecture] module M005, 23 Jan 2017. Coventry: Coventry University London Campus.

 Terzeon, J. (2017) Organisational culture and leadership [seminar] module M005, 7 Feb 2017. Coventry: Coventry University London Campus.

Webster, M. (N/D) ‘Successful change management – Kotter’s 8-step change model.’ Leadership thoughts [online] Available from: <http://www.leadershipthoughts.com/kotters-8-step-change-model/> [Accessed 15th  March 2017]

What could be the best change management model to tackle with the resistance of change’s problem of the employees?

It could be argued that today, as the prevalence growth of global economy, change is one of the most fundamental issues that concerns the managers/leaders regarding both the nature of work and the organizational structure (Heerwagen, Kelly and Kampschoroers, 2016). The primary reasons are uncertain economic conditions, globalization and fierce world competition, the level of government intervention, EU influences and social legislation, political interests, scarcity of natural resources, rapid developments in new technologies and the information age (Mullins, 2017). Hence, while some people are satisfied taking the changes, the others have such a resistance to change which might being caused by some broad reasons as: selective perception, habit, inconvenience of loss of freedom, economic implication, security in the past and fear of the unknown (Mullins, 2017). However, the idea the Mullins (2010:753) suggested is not totally right because it might be difficult but as long as the managers/leaders can create a successful management of change, they can lead their business and followers go through the challenges and unexpected changes (Gleeson, 2014).

For instance, the Kotter’s 8-step change model (Figure 01) can be applied to tackle with the resistance of change in the organizations as it emphasizes on 3 primary vital stages as: creating a climate for change, engaging and enabling the whole organization, implementing and sustaining change (Webster, N/D). In more details, it also points out the 3 smaller steps for the first two stages and 2 smaller steps for the last one which is shown in the figure 01 below (Webster, N/D). Thus, it could be believed that this change management model is useful to apply for any types of organizations as it draws a general guideline with the primary concept as: ‘successful change leaders find a problem or a solution to a problem and then show people using engaging and compelling situations to change behavior’(Webster, N/D).

Kotter's 8-step change model.png

(Figure 01 – Kotter’s 8-step change model – Webster, N/D)

 Webster (N/D) also clarified Kotter’s idea as shown in the table below (Figure 02). However, one of the disadvantages of this theory is “In a change effort, culture come last, not first.” Which under measures the importance of the natural culture of organization and the importance of focusing on tackling with resistance of change of individuals.

Kotter's 8-step change model 2

(Figure 02 – Clarification on Kotter’s 8-step change model – Webster, N/D)

 As mentioned above, managers and the adequate change management plays the vital part to the success and stability of the organization, Kotter’s 8-step change model could be suggested as useful tool for the mangers/leaders to handle with the resistance of change of their followers. However, it should be more focus on human behaviors, influence them in the more efficient way to change as Riches argued that: the key to deal with the resistance to change is to understand both its physical and emotional components (Mullins, 2017). Take Tesco’s practice in motivational theory as an example of how important it would be to emphasize on individuals’ behavior in attemption of tackling with their resistance of change. Elton Mayo’s motivational theory (early 1930s) suggested that both internal and external factors can motivate person to change or develop their action and the possible factors are as shown in the table below. (Figure 03)

Mayo's motivational theory

(Figure 03 – Mayo’s motivational theory – The Times 100, N/D)

According to the Times 100 (N/D), Tesco has applied this theory successfully throughout the whole company by the focus on communication (1-to-1 discussions with the managers, daily team meetings, giving out Value Awards) and the ‘training and development opportunities with “strategic career” or the system of 360 degree feedback (The Times 100, N/D). As a result, it will result into the improvement in both self-assessment and advancement of the employees which will paves the way for the efficiency in influencing the followers to change as they can be given what they want, what they deserved and be motivated and promoted in the right way so they can understand themselves better to be well-prepared and ready for the current and forthcoming challenges and accept them in the most suitable way. Thus it will avoid the possible reasons of the resistance of change which were mentioned above as: inconvenience of loss of freedom, economic implication, and security in the past and fear of the unknown.

In conclusion, it could be stated that the change and the resistance of change occurred in business environment can be well-managed and tackled by the adequate change management plan of the manager/leader (for example using the combination of Kotter’s 8-step change model and Mayo’ motivational theory which focus on individuals’ behaviors to influence them to face with change) to avoid the possible consequences of the resistance of change as: slowdown the process or positive: take time to have proper and better decision, results.

 

*References:

Mullins, J., L. (2016) ‘Organizational culture and change.’ In Management & Organizational behavior. London: Pearson, 537-566.

Heerwagen, J., Kelly, K., Kampschoroers, K. (2016) ‘The changing nature of organization, work and workplace.’ Whole building design guide [online] Available from: <https://www.wbdg.org/resources/changing-nature-organizations-work-and-workplace> [Accessed 15th  March 2017].

 Gleeson, B. (2014) ‘5 steps for leading through adaptive change.’ Forbes [online] Available from: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/brentgleeson/2014/08/10/5-steps-for-leading-through-adaptive-change/#41545a7f7dae> [Accessed 15th  March 2017].

 Webster, M. (N/D) ‘Successful change management – Kotter’s 8-step change model.’ Leadership thoughts  [online] Available from: <http://www.leadershipthoughts.com/kotters-8-step-change-model/> [Accessed 15th  March 2017].

The Times 100 (N/D) ‘Motivational theory in practice at Tesco.’ Business case studies [pdf]

The most effective leadership & management styles and approaches.

The two terms leadership and management are believed to be misunderstood in a number of debate and also be utilized synonymously, says John Kotter, Konosuke Matsushita professor of leadership at Harvard University (Ratcliffe, 2013). Though they can be used interchangeable in the flexible situations, management is more likely relating to the various specified positions for different people in order to achieve the final organizational objectives (Mullins, 2016). To the contrary, leadership emphasizes more on the interpersonal behavior of each employee (Mullins, 2016). Thus, it can be considered as the influence relationship – aligning people to the final vision through effective communication, motivation & inspiration (Radcliffe, 2013).

To an extent, the figure 01 below points out the most fundamental differences between leadership and management.

Management

Leadership
Managers do thing right Leaders do the right things
Managing is an authority relationship Leading is an influence relationship
Managing creates stability

Leading creates changes

(Figure 01 – Mullins, 2016)

 It can be argued that the best answer for the query: What is the most effective approach to manage the work of the followers? is: utilizing the combination of leading and managing in the flexible and wise way because for each different situation or organization will require the own unique way to manage. For instance, considering the organizational iceberg (Figure 02), it can be seen clearly as it has two primary parts with a number of fundamental components in each one which will need the different approach to tackle with each one.

Organizational iceberg

(Figure 02 – Terzeon, 2017)

 Therefore, I totally agree with the idea from CMI (2013) as: “What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics”. For instance, for the upper part of this organizational iceberg (Figure 02), it relates more to the biggest department of the operational activities such as: formal goals, financial resources, technology, rules & regulations, customer and organization design which will require the more proper perspective as management to ensure the efficiency of the functional specified sectors to gain the organizational objectives. However, for the under part “Behavioral aspects”, the leadership skill can be considered as more suitable as it will focus on influencing the individuals by understanding and evaluating their own value & personalities, then organize the best match between their own capabilities with the requirement of organization while is also helpful for tackling with conflicts and whole team process (Figure 02). This process is likely more working with individuals, not sectors as management. Furthermore, each organization will have their own different and unique organizational iceberg which will pave the way for the different approaches of leadership and management style. There will not be the best one, but the most adequate one for each company.

The ideal leaders/managers are the one who do not only bring the most effective profitability results but also the ones who care about their employees. For example, James Goodnight – co-founder & CEO of software company SAS Institute has an employee with the title of Chief Health Officer (Pleffer, 2015). Another same example could be Amir Dan Rubin – CEO of Stanford Healthcare with his mission to ‘heal humanity through science & compassion, one person at a time’ (Pleffer, 2015). The reason for it is the good and caring leadership and management style will contribute to the improvement in business & employee’s performance (the Department for Business, Innovation & Skills Leadership and Management Network Group (LMNG), 2012). Otherwise the poor leadership and management style can cause the short & long term impacts on business cost, and business survival. (The Department for Business, Innovation & Skills Leadership and Management Network Group (LMNG), 2012). For example, the tragic and shocking collapse of Rana Plaza in Bangladesh in 2011 which killed 1,129 an injured more than 2,000 employees is because partly of the poor and terrible leadership & management style of the American and European brands and retailers involved in (O’Rourke, 2013). This is considered as a rising issue in garment industry in which outsourcing cheap labor in the developing country is popular. However, the big multinational companies can not ensure the good working condition, human right, and minimum wage for the employees in their mills  (Humans right watch, 2015) so that they are always to blame for their “Fast – fashion” trend-creation (O’Rourke, 2013).

In conclusion, the utilize of leadership and management style should be flexible and exchangeable regarding different situations and organizations. Furthermore, to tackle with the prevalence and changeable growth of economy, the leaders/managers should also improve themselves day by day, not just in term of academic knowledge but their own personalities such as: honest, delegate, self-confident, commitment, intuition and inspire (Prive, 2012)

 

 *References:

Human rights watch (2015) ‘Bangladesh: 2 years after Rana plaza, workers denied rights.’ [online] Available from: <https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/22/bangladesh-2-years-after-rana-plaza-workers-denied-rights> [Accessed 6th  March 2017].

Mullins, J., L. (2016) ‘Leadership in organizations.’ In Management & Organisational behaviour. London: Pearson, 312-313.

O’Rourke, D. (2013) ‘Fashion firms must pay the price of safety in Bangladesh.’ The Guardian  [online] Available from: <https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/fashion-brands-retailers-bangladesh-factory-safety> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 Pleffer, J. (2015) ‘Who are the world’s best leaders?’ Fortune  [online] Available from: <http://fortune.com/2015/03/26/best-leaders-employee-well-being/> [Accessed 5th March 2017].

 Prive, T. (2012) ‘Top 10 qualities that make a great leader?’ Forbes  [online] Available from: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/tanyaprive/2012/12/19/top-10-qualities-that-make-a-great-leader/#22c05e1f7754 > [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

Ratcliffe, R. (2013) ‘What is the difference between leadership and management.’ The Guardian  [online] Available from: <https://www.theguardian.com/careers/difference-between-leadership-management > [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 Terzeon, J. (2017) Organisational culture and leadership [seminar] module M005, 7 Feb 2017. Coventry: Coventry University London Campus.

The Department for Business, Innovation & Skills Leadership and Management Network Group (LMNG), (2012) ‘Leadership & management in the UK – the key to sustainable growth.’ GOV UK  [pdf] Available from: <https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32327/12-923-leadership-management-key-to-sustainable-growth-evidence.pdf > [Accessed 5th March 2017].

 

 

 

Managing diverse team.

Today, the dramatic soar in global economy has led to the demand for the diverse team, especially in the big multinational companies (Mullins, 2016). Basically, the diversity of a team in term of both inherent factors (race, gender, age,…) and acquired factors (experience, culture background has the close connection with the success of the business (Rock, Grant & Grey, 2016). Thus, it results in a demand to have a ‘diversity management and managing work teams’ business model in order to lead the whole organization to achieve the strategic objectives (Sammartino, O’Flynn & Nicholas, 2002) and the management style has the considerable impacts on the performance of the diverse team. (Figure 01)

 

The impacts of management style on the perfomance of diverse team(Figure 01 – The impacts of management on the performance of diverse work teams – Sammartino, O’Flynn & Nicholas, 2002)

It is believed that diverse team results in the better performance than the normal team and this diversity is the significant matter (Hunt, Layton & Prince, 2015). Smedley from Financial Times (2014) argued that the diverse team with the combination of mixed gender, ethnicity, own capability, different age range, & sexual orientation is likely to create various opinions and wider range of experience which will pave the way for boosting decision-making and problem-solving process. To an extent, diverse team can be considered as it can outperform the homogenous team because they can bring more variety range of ideas and different styles of solutions and reactions which will lead to the better way in tackling with problems (Sammartino, O’Flynn & Nicholas, 2002). Take then marketing industry in the UK as an example as the requirement for a culture adaption with society by the diversity is one of the most fundamental components for the marketing companies to success (Tesseras, 2015). In more detail, Jan Gooding – group brand director at Aviva explained: “The more diverse your marketing people are the more emotional intelligence and empathy they will have for different audiences, so it’s incredibly important.”

Furthermore, Rock & Grant from Havard Business Review (2016) revealed that based on the 2015 McKinsey’ report on 366 public companies ‘those in the top quartile for ethnic and racial diversity in management’ accounts for estimated 35% more to have financial returns above the industry mean. They also justified a number of reasons for the better of diverse team as: the focus more on facts, the process of handling facts are more carefully and more innovative ideas (Rock & Grant, 2016).

However, the drawbacks and challenges of diverse team should not be overlooked in term of leading in a changing world. The first challenge is that in diverse team, to get on well and work with the colleagues, the employees need to trust each other, thus it requires the considerable attempt of the leader to create the strong and stable bonds between the team members in the diverse team (The Economist, 2016).  The second issue is about the various cultural differences. For instance,  it will be really difficult to combine and make a connection between the people with different cultures as European are likely to be more straight away regarding tackling the task or problem, while the Asian seem to avoid point out the mistake or issue directly (The Economist, 2016).  As a result, it will result in the conflicts in the way of communication in the meetings and discussions. Furthermore, leader might have to handle with the dissatisfaction of the employees in term of diversity training program as the trainee has negative reactions such as angry or resistant attitude (Dobbin & Kalev, 2016).

In conclusion, due to the vital benefits of diverse team and the necessary of leading in a changing world, the leaders need to persuade the diversity strategic plan as the first most fundamental things should start from the changing in the internal culture of the organization (Zokowski, 2014). The Metric Stream – the Sillicon Valley based governance, risk & compliance firm experienced the increase of $60m from the last investor falls, and the total of $125m since its change in 1999 (Tulshyan, 2015). Take the poor gender diversity of Google (Men accounts for 83% of Google’s engineering employees and 79 percent of its managers) as an another example as changing the way of hiring could be possible solution, since experiencing and realizing that problem, the leaders of Google has set a goal as ‘fight deep-set cultural biases and an insidious frat-house attitude that pervades the tech business’ (Manjoo, 2014). They all can be seen clearly as their long term strategy as appeared on their offical website as ‘Hiring diverse Googlers’ which focusing on: preparing promising talent for leading technical roles, looking where we have not looked before and exposing students to careers in tech through internships (Google Diversity, 2017).

 

 

* References:.

Dobbin, F., Kalev, A. (2016) ‘Why diversity programs fail.’ Harvard Business Review [online] Available from: <https://hbr.org/2016/07/why-diversity-programs-fail> [Accessed 3rd  Feb 2017].

 Google diversity (2017) ’Hiring diverse Googlers.’ [online] Available from: <https://www.google.com/diversity/hiring.html> [Accessed 5th  Feb 2017].

Hunt, V., Layton, D., Prince, S. (2015) ’Why diversity matters.’ McKinsey & Company [online] Available from: <http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/why-diversity-matters> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

Hunt, V., Layton, D., Prince, S. (2015) ’Why diversity matters.’ McKinsey & Company [pdf] Available from: <file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/Diversity%20Matters.pdf > [Accessed 3rd  Feb 2017].

 Manjoo, F. (2014) ‘Exposing hidden bias at Google.’ The NewYork Times  [online] Available from: <https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/25/technology/exposing-hidden-biases-at-google-to-improve-diversity.html?_r=0> [Accessed 3rd  Feb 2017].

Mullins, J., L. (2016) ‘Leadership in organizations.’ In Management & Organisational behaviour. London: Pearson, 312-313.

Rock, D., Grant, H., Grey, J. (2016) ‘Diverse team feel less comfortable – and that’s why they perform better.’ Harvard Business Review [online] Available from: < https://hbr.org/2016/09/diverse-teams-feel-less-comfortable-and-thats-why-they-perform-better > [Accessed 5th  Feb 2017].

 Rock, D., Grant, H. (2016) ‘Why diverse teams are smarter.’ Harvard Business Review [online] Available from: <https://hbr.org/2016/11/why-diverse-teams-are-smarter> [Accessed 5th  Feb 2017].

 Sammartino, A., O’Flynn, J., Nicholas, S. (2002) ’Managing diverse work team: A business model for diversity management.’ Australian centre for international business [pdf] Available from: <http://fbe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/747507/Managing_diverse_teams_business_model.pdf > [Accessed 5th  Feb 2017].

 Smedley, T. (2014) ‘The evidence is growing. There really is a business case for diversity.’ Financial Times [online] Available from: <https://www.ft.com/content/4f4b3c8e-d521-11e3-9187-00144feabdc0> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 Tesseras, L. (2015) ’Diverse workforces build stronger businesses.’ Marketing week [online] Available from: <https://www.marketingweek.com/2015/03/11/why-having-a-diverse-marketing-team-pays/> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 The economist (2016) ‘Diversity fatigue.’ [online] Available from: <http://www.economist.com/news/business/21692865-making-most-workplace-diversity-requires-hard-work-well-good-intentions-diversity> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 Tulshyan, R. (2015) ‘Racially diverse companies outperform industry norms by 35%.’ Forbes  [online] Available from: <https://www.forbes.com/sites/ruchikatulshyan/2015/01/30/racially-diverse-companies-outperform-industry-norms-by-30/#787ec69e1132> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 Zokowski, P. (2014) ‘How to build a diverse workforce: lessons for Google and LinkedIn.’ The Guardian  [online] Available from: <https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/jun/16/google-linkedin-boa-intel-diversity-diverse-workforce> [Accessed 4th  Feb 2017].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is “Ethical leadership” and the related issues?

Today, due to such the prevalence growth in the global economy, it paves the way to a number of crucial issues that the managers and the leadership have to concern carefully and know exactly how to tackle with in term of remaining their business alongside with profit purposes. Regarding that problem, ethical leadership topic should not be underestimated. According to a lecture as part of module M005 – Leading in a changing world, basically, it can be understood that ethical leadership is a process insisting of the standard behaviors which are expected from the leaders by both their personal activities and their international relationships such as the bonds with the suppliers or transportation parties then be observed by their own work and the performance with the related other parties in business (Pillai, 2017). Moreover, ethical leadership can be presented by the concept of the promotion of the instructions giving to the employers from the leaders through the various ways such as: two-way communication, reinforcement or decision-making (Pillai, 2017)

Therefore, it leads to a number of significant impacts on business in term of 3 main vital aspects as operational efficiency of the company, achieving customers’ satisfaction and the long term results that the companies are pursuing (Pillai, 2017). In term of the impacts of ethical leadership on the efficiency of operational activities, it could be analyzed in more detailed components as: the recruitment of staff and the reflect of expectations of employees (Pillai, 2017). For instance, in the garment industry, today there are a number of companies are making the consistent commitment to follow the ethical concept in the way they operate their business such as Burberry, or Inditex company. Burberry is now considered as a leader in the sustainable ways of doing business as the ethical program is being implemented which emphasize the most on the way the supply is grown and the treating problems with their staffs through all the offices as well as their mills all over the world (Burberry PLC, 2016). Secondly, the effective role of ethical leadership will lead to the success in gaining customers’ satisfaction such as: help customer understand what the company does or achieve their loyalty. Thus it will lead to the long term consequence for the company. For instance, Mr. Warren Buffet – a billionaire and one of the most successful investors has stated his ethical expectation to the Berkshire Hathaway managers in the letter to them as they should protect Berkshire’s reputation by any cost paid. Even they have to lose a huge amount of money; they cannot afford to lose their reputation. (The Business Finance, 2011)

It can be stated that there are two main principle theories of ethical leadership as: Deontological (Act Consequentialism) and Teleological (Consequentialism) (BBC, N/A). Basically, the Deontological theory emphasize on the significance of the way that work can be done by the person than the consequence that it may lead to (BBC, N/A). Besides that, the Teleological theory consider more about the final achievement than the process people have made to accomplish it properly (BBC, N/A). Therefore, the most distinctive difference between these theories hidden under the way firms’ objective could be measured. It could be argued that the Teleological theory is better in application in organizational operation in order to achieve the best results, however, in term of the impact of ethical leadership on a number of perspectives of the firms such as: individuals, teams or organizations’ performance, the Deontological theory can be considered as the more ethical one for long term strategy and consequences of any companies. Take the case of Topshop recently as an example,  in May 2016, it was reported that about 200 protestors had blocked the road around Topshop flagship store in West-end, London, shouting: “Topshop, shame on you” as the reacts toward the incredibly low  living wage paid for the cleaners at their chain of retail stores. (International Business Times, 2016). According to Keating (2016): “According to UVW, in spite of substantial profits, workers on Topshop’s shop floor are paid wages that are about 30% lower than the current Wage of £9.40/hour – approximately £6.58/hour.”  Thus, it leads to the real concern that even though The Arcadia group (including Topshop) has gained a huge amount of profit as “an annual turnover of more than £2bn ($2.87m) and an increase in annual profits of more than £250m” in 2016 (International Business Times, 2016), they cannot be considered as the success ethical role model as their bad actions regarding employees’ living wage and benefits which had contributed to ruin part of their reputation in the fashion industry.

As a result, it could be stated that, although the Teleological theory might be more appropriate for pursuing and achieving results faster without considering each action precisely, the Deontological theory can be considered as ethical and suitable for long term strategy and consequences as doing each right things can lead to the more stable result than doing thing whether it is right or not to achieve the desire results.

*Reference:

1, BBC (2016) ‘Consequentialism.’  [online] Available from: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/consequentialism_1.shtml> [Accessed 5th Feb 2017].

2, Burberry PLC (2016) ‘Press Release’ [online] Available from: <http://www.burberryplc.com/media_centre/press_releases/2016/burberry_announced_as_industry_leader_for_sustainability_in_the_dow_jones_sustainability_world_index&gt; [Accessed 5th Feb 2017].

3, Keating, F. (2016) ‘Demonstration at Sir Phillip Green’s Topshop store causes chaos in London’s West End.’ International Business Times [online] Available from: <http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/demonstration-sir-philip-greens-topshop-store-causes-chaos-londons-west-end-1560143> [Accessed 6th Feb 2017].

 4, Nicholas, L. (2011) ‘An ethical wake-up call from Warren Buffet.’ Business Finance [online] Available from: <http://businessfinancemag.com/tax-amp-accounting/ethical-wake-call-warren-buffett> [Accessed 5th Feb 2017].

5, Pillai, D., G. (2017) Leadership and Ethics [lecture] module M005, 23 Jan 2017. Coventry: Coventry University London Campus.

 6,  United Voices of the World (2016) ‘Protest at Topshop: Living wage now!’ [online] Available from: <https://www.uvwunion.org.uk/upcoming-events/2016/3/12/protest-at-topshop-living-wage-now> [Accessed 6th Feb 2017].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analyzing how I have developed and my priorities for term 2. (APS – Week 11)

When term 1 is about to finish, I realize in just short time, I have been improved pretty good. It can be seen the considerable amount improvement in a number of skills such as: team work skill, leadership, project management and time management as I had a chance to work with 3 different groups for 3 different subjects. Honestly, adjusting and working with too many people with different personalities and working style in just short time is not an easy task to achieve, however, they were such good challenges to help myself learn how to adapt and improve myself in any situations or environments. Furthermore, I learnt and improved my knowledge in term of many fundamental things of business such as strategic tool and marketing tool (by Sustainable strategy and Marketing subject). Besides that, I also learnt how to improve my learning and working skills by such an amazing subject – APS such as how to find the reliable resource, how to accomplish a whole research project by following the crucial stages step by step.

However, I still find myself not good enough and need to improve more in the next term  regarding: method of study, time management, communication (academic writing).

I am going to make a plan for term 2 after having holiday as planning a constructed and precise timetable for self-study, research time, and deadlines control so that I can get my desired mark and understand better what I learn from the lectures or seminar and how to apply it in my business in my future career.

 

 

Analyzing my experience of the group presentation on 25th November 2016. (APS – Week 7).

This week, for the first time, we have been experienced the biggest presentation ever with the students from three different majors in one class which includes: Global Finance Service, Global Finance Trading and Global Business. Both I and my group felt extremely excited about that.

Especially, our teacher suddenly informed us that we are going to be the first group to present in front of every people, although we all prepared carefully before, we still felt a little bit nervous. Then, luckily our presentation went pretty well. We just got one question from one of the participants asked for more information about the graph we shown in one of our slide regarding the exact time of peak hour of travelers to Liverpool street station mentioned. Besides that, from the two teachers, we got quite great feedbacks as we are going on the right way for our research project although there is a lack of in-depth research and we forgot to put the topic of our research in the first slide.

Speaking of the other presentations of the other groups, I learned many fundamental things from their topics and how they did research precisely and professionally. For example, one group has their topic as: If you have a budget of 1m pounds, which company will you put your investment in? They did such great research into the companies they chose in many aspects and activities in order to prove that company deserves their huge investment.

In conclusion, I was definitely keen on this class and think every group did their best and great job this week. I hope there would be more class like this so we all can learn and share knowledge together as we came from different majors.

Analysing my experience of collecting and analysing data. (APS – Week 7).

For me, this week has been one of the most exciting weeks in this term with the number of fantastic challenges. First of all, as usual, we had a great class of Sustainable strategy subject with Mrs. Nwankwo-Onyiuke. We shared and discussed together about Ansoff’s Matrix which are such a tool for business’ growth in each special period of time, and how to apply it into the real organizations in reality. Secondly, today, I experienced one-hour valuable debate in my Marketing class in term of Big data’s advantages and disadvantages.
Most interesting and fundamental thing is the forthcoming presentation of APS on Friday 25th Dec 2016. To prepare for this presentation and my individual analysis, we did our survey with 10 questions and collected data by going out to the nearby Liverpool street area, giving our questionnaires to 50 other people in variety range of age and occupations. After that, we gathered all their information together, having valuable facts in term of both demography (age, gender) and the primary questions. In more details, by analyzing the figures collected from the question: What kind of sport would you like to do in your leisure time? It can be argued that people involved into this survey seem to prefer dynamic activities which is good as we are going to open up an adventurous game centre (76% of total people choosing active activities to do in their free time). Furthermore, in the question: Would you use an indoor mountain bike park near the Liverpool street station? 32 out of 50 people in the survey said ‘Yes’ means that we are going to be likely successful with our business project. Therefore, we are quite confident about the feasibility of establishing our adventurous game center based on the data analysis revealed from those figures collected.

Analysing my experience of designing a Questionnaire. (APS – Week 4)

Although I still have one more class of APS for Global business students on this Friday, this week has brought such challenges to me. I and my classmates have been working hard on forthcoming big presentation of Strategy subject on our chosen company of each group. Furthermore, we also have to be well prepared for the debate in term of ‘Big data’ next week for Marketing subject. This week should be so-called ‘research week’.

However, as usual, one of the most interesting things is the project of APS as this week we all talked and paid attention over the questionnaire. A number of meetings and discussions of our group were conducted. We knew that we should make the questions that can pave the way to the fundamental statistic and information in order to analyze the feasibility of our adventurous indoor game center project. There had been a huge number of confusing things such as: what is the limitation of the number of questions? What type of questions should we use? And what should be included in the open questions?

Finally, we ended up with 10 questions which include both yes-no question and multiple choice questions. We also made a decision as putting the mixture of close and open question in just one question. For instance, if the participants cannot find any of the prepared options suitably for them, we create the option with the blank space for them to give more details or other specific reasons of their choices. We hope specific questions which aim to customer’s behavior will be useful for clarification part of our research next week.

Analysing my experience of writing a Literature Review. (APS – Week 3)

So far, I had great classes this week. They have been long days working hard on research project of APS Subject and doing research in term of knowledge cast of Sustainable Strategy Subject.

One of the part which excited me the most are writing the literature review, especially focusing on target market with the research topic as proving the feasibility of an adventurous game center near Liverpool Street. During the period experiencing the previous research to get information for this literature review, I gained a number of amazing things which are definitely not be found in text book and class at all. For example, whenever I found the research which might be helpful in my coursework, I will firstly evaluated whether it can be qualified through the CRAAP test or not. Then I wanted to choose the resources carefully by trying to write the source report so that I can easily evaluate one with each other in term of how the sources value with my project and what could be the ideas which might support my literature review.

Therefore, I can be sure that my literature review will be prepared and designed from the reliable and valuable sources which might help the readers have the overall view of what my group is going to analyze in the following steps of our research project.

To sum up, I understand what exactly I have to do in literature review and find such great sources to support for my coursework in the future though the only problem that I had to tackle with was the limitation of the words for literature review